Forest Range Officer-APPSC
(i) GENERAL STUDIES
1. General Science – Contemporary developments in Science and Technology and their
implications including matters of every day observation and experience, as may be expected of a
well-educated person who has not made a special study of any scientific discipline.
2. Current events of national and international importance.
3. History of India – emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social,
economic, cultural and political aspects with a focus on AP Indian National Movement.
4. World Geography and Geography of India with a focus on AP.
5. Indian polity and Economy – including the country’s political system- rural development –
Planning and economic reforms in India.
(ii) GENERAL ENGLISH
b) Usage and idiom
c) Vocabulary and punctuation
d) Logical re-arrangement of sentences
(SSC (High School) Standard)
ARITHMETIC: Number System-Natural numbers, Integers, Rational and Real numbers, Fundamental
operations, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, Square roots, Decimal fractions.
Unitary method-time and distance, time and work, percentages, applications to simple and compound
interest, profit and loss, ratio and proportion, variation.
Elementary Number Theory – Division algorithm. Prime and composite numbers. Tests of divisibility by
2,3,4,5,9 and 11. Multiples and factors. Factorisation Thorem. H.C.F. and L.C.M. Euclidean algorithm.
Logarithms to base 10, laws of logarithms, use of logarithmic tables.
ALGEBRA: Basic Operations, simple factors, Remainder Theorem, H.C.F., L.C.M. Theory of
polynomials, solutions of quadratic equations, relation between its roots and coefficients (Only real roots
to be considered). Simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns – analytical and Graphical solutions.
Simultaneous linear inequations in two variables and their solutions. Practical problems leading to two
simultaneous linear equations or inequations in two variables or quadratic equations in one variable and
their solutions. Set language and set notation, Rational expressions and conditional identities, laws of
TRIGONOMETRY: Sine x, Cosine x, Tangent x when 0o ≤ x≤90o
values of sin x, cos x and tan x, for x=00,300,450 and 90o
Simple trigonometric identities.
Use of trigonometric tables.
Simple cases of heights and distances.
GEOMETRY: Lines and angles, Plane and plane figures, Theorems on (i) Properties of angles at a
point, (ii) Parallel lines, (iii) Sides and angles of a triangle, (iv) Congruency of triangles, (v) Similar
triangles, (vi) Concurrence of medians and altitudes, (vii) Properties of angles, sides and diagonals of a
parallelogram, rectangle and square, (viii) Circles and its properties including tangents and normals, (ix)
MENSURATION: Areas of squares, rectangles, parallelograms, triangle and circle. Areas of figures
which can be split up into these figures (Field Book), Surface area and volume of cuboids, lateral surface
and volume of right circular cones and cylinders, surface area and volume of spheres.
STATISTICS: Collection and tabulation of statistical data, Graphical representation frequency polygons,
histograms, bar charts, pie charts etc. Measures of central tendency.
1. Engineering Mechanics: Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of
particle and rigid body. Concurrent, non-concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force and
Varignon’s theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent
First and Second Moments of area, Mass moment of Inertia.
Static Friction Inclined plane and bearings.
Kinematics and Kinetics: Kinematics in Cartesian and polar co-ordinates, motion under uniform and
non-uniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle: Momentum and Energy principles, D
Alembert’s Principle, Collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple harmonic motion.
2. Strength of Materials: Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression
members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending moment, Shear Stress distribution
across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength, Leaf spring, Strain Energy in direct stress, bending
Deflection of beams: Macaulay’s method, Mohr’s moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit
load method. Torsion of Shafts, Transmission of power, close coiled helical sprints, Elastic stability of
columns: Euler’s, Rankine’s and Secant formulae. Principal Stresses and Strains in two dimension,
Mohr’s Circle. Theories of Elastic failure, Thin and Thick cylinders: Stresses due to internal and external
3. Structural Analysis: Analysis of pin jointed plane trusses, deflection in trusses. Three hinged and
two hinged arches, rib shortening, temperature effects, influence lines in arches. Analysis of propped
cantilevers, fixed beams, continuous beams and rigid frames. Slope deflection, moment distribution,
Kani’s method and Matrix method: Force and Displacement methods. Rolling loads and influence lines
for determinate beams and pin jointed trusses.
Geotechnical Engineering: Types of soil, field identification and classification, phase relationships,
consistency limits, particle size distribution, classification of soil, structure and clay mineralogy.
Capillary water and structural water, effective stress and pore water pressure, Darcy’s Law, factors
affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits.
Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi’s theory of one
dimensional consolidation, consolidation test. Compaction of soil, optimum moisture content, Proctor
Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, types of sampler, field tests.
Shear strength of soils, Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, shear tests Earth pressure at rest, active and
passive pressures, Rankine’s theory, Coulomb’s wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall.
Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure, immediate and
Load carrying capacity of pile groups.
Stability of slope-conventional method of slices, stability numbers.
Transportation Engineering: Highway alignment, choice of layout and capacity of highways, location
survey, geometric design of highways-various elements, curves, grade separation and segregation of
traffic, inter-section design, highway materials and testing subgrade and pavement components, type of
pavements, road drainage, elements of airport engineering.
Railway engineering-elements of permanent track-rails, sleepers, ballast and rail fastenings, tractive
resistance, elements of geometric design-gradients and grade compensation on curves, cant transition
curves and vertical curves, stresses in railway tracks, points and crossing, signaling and inter-locking,
maintenance of railway track. Culverts and small bridges.
Fluid Mechanics: fluid properties, fluid statics, forces on plane and curved surfaces, stability of loating
and submerged bodies.
Kinematics: Velocity, streamlines, continuity equation, accelerations irrotational and rotational flow,
velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, separation.
Dynamics: Euler’s equation along streamline, control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy
and moment of momentum equation from control volume equation, applications to pipe flow, moving
vanes, moment of momentum, Dimensional analysis.
Boundary layer on a flat plate, drag and lift on bodies. Laminar and Turbulent Flows. Laminar and
turbulent flow through pipes, friction factor variation, pipe networks, water hammer and surge tanks.
Open Channel Flow: Energy and momentum correction factors, uniform and non-uniform flows,
specific energy and specific force, critical depth, Friction factors and roughness co-efficients, flow in
transitions, free overfall, weirs, hydraulic jump, surges, gradually varied flow equations, surface profiles,
moving hydraulic jump.
Water Supply: Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water,
impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, water borne
diseases, standards for potable water.
Intake of water: Pumping and gravity schemes, water treatment; principles of coagulation, flocculation
and sedimentation; slow-, rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and
Water storage and distribution: storage and balancing reservoir types, location and capacity.
Distribution systems: layout, hydraulics of pipe lines, pipe fittings, valves including check and pressure
reducing valves, meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance of distribution
systems, pumping stations and their operations.
Sewerage systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, storm sewage-separate and combined systems,
flow through sewers, design of sewers, sewer appurtenances, manholes, inlets, junctions, siphon.
Plumbing in Public buildings.
Sewerage characterization: BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of
disposal in normal water course and on land.
Sewage treatment: Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation
ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.
Construction Management: Elements and principles of Activity on Arrow (AOA) and Activity on Node
(AON) networks and work breakdown structure. Interfaces. Ladder networks. Activity time. Time
computations and works. ATC and PTC trade-off. Work study and sampling. Scheduling principlesmaterial schedules. ABC and EOQ analysis of inventory. Budgeting with bar-charts. Working capital.
PERT, probability of completion.
Elements of Engineering Economics, methods of appraisal, present worth, annual cost, benefit-cost,
incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. Choosing between alternatives including levels of
investments. Project profitability.